Coolnerds Electronic HTML Reference

Thursday 08th of December 2016 03:18:03 PM

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<!> <EM> <OPTION>
<A><EMBED> <P>
<ADDRESS> <FONT> <PRE>
<APPLET><FORM> <S>
<B> <FRAME> <SAMP>
<BASE><FRAMESET> <SCRIPT>
<BASEFONT> <HEAD><SELECT>
<BGSOUND> <H1>, <H2>, … <SMALL>
<BIG><HR> <SOUND>
<BLINK><HTML> <STRIKE>
<BLOCKQUOTE> <I><STRONG>
<BODY><IMG> <SUB>
<BR><INPUT> <SUP>
<CAPTION> <ISINDEX><TABLE>
<CENTER><KBD> <TD>
<CITE> <LI> <TEXTAREA>
<CODE><LINK> <TH>
<COMMENT> <MAP><TITLE>
<DD><MARQUEE> <TR>
<DFN><MENU> <TT>
<DIR> <META> <U>
<DIV><NOBR> <UL>
<DL><NOFRAMES> <VAR>
<DT><OL> <WBR>


<--! ... -->

These tags enclose comments to yourself, which can help you document your HTML code and make it more maintainable. The browser ignores the open and close tags and any text between <!-- and -->. Identical in function to the <comment>...</comment> tags.

Example

<!-- This is a comment to myself. 3/20/97 -->

Top

<A...> ... </A>

An anchor element marks either the start of a hypertext link or the destination of a hypertext link. Use this tag to create hot spots on your Web page or to jump to hot spots on the Web, in another file, or on the same page. Either the HREF or the NAME attribute is required to use the anchor element.

Attributes

HREF="target" text_or_image Defines a hyperlink. The browser jumps to the target when the user clicks the hyperlink text_or_image. The target can be a URL, a filename, or a #identifier that refers to an anchor (bookmark) in the same or another document.

NAME="identifier" Defines a bookmark - the target of a hyperlink. The identifier must be unique within the HTML document.

TITLE="title" An informational title for the document referenced by the HREF attribute. In most browsers this title appears in the status bar when the user is pointing to the hyperlink in the document.

REL="relationship_values_list" Specifies the relationship(s) from the anchor to the target. Relationship_values_list is a comma-separated list. Used only with the HREF attribute.

REV="relationship_values_list" Same as REL, except that it specifies the relationship(s) from the target to the anchor

URN="uniform_resource_name" Specifies a uniform resource name for a target document. Not widely supported at this time.

METHODS="methods_list" Specifies functions a user can perform on an object. Methods_list is a comma-separated list. Acceptable methods are determined by the server.

TARGET="window_name" Used with the HREF attribute to specify the name of a frame, or a new browser window that opens if it isn't opened already. In framed sites, this attribute takes precedence of the <BASE TARGET> tag.

Example

Here's a small web page that contains a bookmark, a hyperlink to that bookmark, and a hyperlink to a site on the web.

<A NAME="Top"></A> <!-- Specifies a spot named Top is this page -->
<H1>This is the title </H1>
Body text body text body text body text body text. Body text body text body text body text body text. Body text body text body text body text body text. Body text body text body text body text body text. Body text body text body text body text body text.<P>
<!--The line below takes the reader to the Top target in this document -->
<A HREF="#Top">Go to Top</A><P>
<!--The next line takes the reader to the web site at http://www.coolnerds.com-->
<A HREF="http://www.coolnerds.com/">Go to My Home Page</A>

Netscape Gold Editor

There are a couple ways that you can use Netscape Gold Editor with anchor elements:

Word IA

Word IA also offers a few different methods for working with anchor elements:

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<ADDRESS> ... </ADDRESS>

These tags format the text that appears between the open and close tag as address information. Use them to specify a mailing address, e-mail address, telephone number, and so on. Typically, the address text appears italicized and an automatic paragraph break appears before and after.

Example

<ADDRESS>Mail comments to <A HREF="mailto:alan@coolnerds.com">
Alan</A></ADDRESS>

Looks like this in a web browser:

Mail comments to Alan

Netscape Gold Editor

To specify address information with the Netscape Gold Editor, select text and choose Address from the Paragraph Style drop-down list on the toolbar or choose Properties > Paragraph > Address from the menu bar.

Word IA

Select text and choose Address from the Style drop down list.

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<APPLET...> ... </APPLET>

These tags specify the location and other attributes of a pre-compiled, executable applet that produces live audio, animation, or other Java applications on the Web page. For more details about writing Java applets and information about getting a copy of the HotJava browser, visit http://java.sun.com. Note that Java is not the same as JavaScript.

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<B> ... </B>

These tags display the text that appears between them in boldface.

Example

When all else fails, <B>read the instructions</B>.

looks like this in a web browser:

When all else fails, read the instructions.

Netscape Gold Editor

Select text and click the Bold button in the toolbar, or press Ctrl+B, or choose Properties > Character > Bold.

Word IA

Select text and click the Bold button in the toolbar, or press Ctrl+B.

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<BASE ...>

This tag records the base URL for the document. Any URLs contained within the document then can be in a form relative to this base address. If you omit the <BASE ...> element, the browser resolves any relative URLs by using the URL it originally used to access the document. Place the <BASE> element between the <HEAD>...</HEAD> elements.

Attributes

HREF="base URL" Defines the base address for this document.

TARGET = "name" Defines a window or frame to display a document in, where name has already been defined in a <FRAME> tag.

Example

<HEAD>
<BASE HREF="http://www.coolnerds.com/">
<TITLE>Welcome to my Home Page</TITLE>
</HEAD>

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<BASEFONT ...>

This tag changes the base font size for the document. Any <FONT SIZE ...> changes increase or decrease the font size relative to the base font size that you have established. Particularly useful for setting a base font size for use with <BIG> and <SMALL> tags in Netscape Navigator.

Attributes

COLOR = "triplet or name" Defines a color using rgb triplets or (for Netscape Navigator 2), color name (see Color Values).

FACE = "name" Defines a typeface where name is the name of a font on the reader's PC. If the font cannot be found on the reader's PC, the default font (typically Times Roman) is used instead. Currently supported only by Internet Explorer 2.0.

SIZE = n where n is a number between 1 (smallest) and 7 (largest) inclusive. The default is 3.

Example

<BASEFONT FACE="Arial" COLOR=#0000FF SIZE=4>

sets the base font to Arial typeface, in blue, at a slightly larger-than-normal size (about 14 points rather than 12 points.)

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<BGSOUND ...>

Inserts a background sound on the page that's downloaded and played automatically when the reader opens the page. The sound file can be in .WAV, .AU format, or .MID (MIDI) format. Internet Explorer only.

Attributes

SRC="soundfile" Defines the name of the sound file to play in the background.

LOOP=n Where n is a number specifying how many times the sounds. Optionally, you can set n to -1 or INFINITE. If the value is -1 or INFINITE, the sound plays continuously until another page is loaded.

Example

<BGSOUND SRC="drumroll.wav" LOOP=INFINITE>

Word IA

Choose Format > Background Sound from Word IA's menu bar.

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<BIG>…</BIG>

Text between the <BIG> and </BIG> tags is shown at a slightly larger size than surrounding text.

Example

If your browser supports the <BIG> tag, the text between those tags below:

I am regular and <BIG>I am big </BIG> I think.


will look larger on your screen (see below):

I am regular and I am big I think.

Top

<BLINK> ... </BLINK>

These tags display the text that appears between them as blinking text. Netscape Navigator only.

Example

Don't you just hate <BLINK>blinking text</BLINK>?

If you're viewing this with Netscape Navigator, or some other browser that supports <BLINK>, you'll see some blinking text below:

Don't you just hate blinking text?


Netscape Gold Editor

Select text and choose Properties > Character > Blink.

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<BLOCKQUOTE> ... </BLOCKQUOTE>

Sets the text between the open and close tags apart from other text on a page, usually to display a lengthy quotation. The appearance of the text depends on the reader's browser, but typically involves extra left and right indents and/or an italic font. Also causes a paragraph break and usually adds space above and below the quoted text.

Example

Famous quote from Romeo in Shakespeare's play:<P>

<BLOCKQUOTE>But soft, what light through yonder window breaks?<BR>
'Tis the East, and Juliet is the sun.</BLOCKQUOTE> <P>

Wow, how cool. Don't you wish people still talked like that?

In this web browser that text appears as:

Famous quote from Romeo in Shakespeare's play:

But soft, what light through yonder window breaks?
'Tis the East, and Juliet is the sun.

Wow, how cool. Don't you wish people still talked like that?


Netscape Gold Editor

Select text and choose Properties > Text, click the Paragraph tab, choose Block Quote from the Additional Style drop-down list, and choose OK.

Word IA

Select text and choose Blockquote from the Style drop-down list.

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<BODY> ... </BODY>

This element defines all text and images that make up the page and all items that provide control and formatting for the page.

Attributes

ALINK="color" Defines the color of the active link. Default is red. Supported by many recent browsers.

BACKGROUND="imagefile" Defines the location of an image for use as a page background. The image usually appears tiled. Supported by many recent browsers.

BGCOLOR="color" Defines the color of the page background. Default is grey. Supported by many recent browsers.

BGPROPERTIES=FIXED Makes the background image a watermark that does not scroll as a normal background image does. Internet Explorer only.

LEFTMARGIN="pixels" Indents the left margin of the document the specified number of pixels. Internet Explorer only.

LINK="color" Defines the color of link text. Default is blue. Supported by many recent browsers.

TEXT="color" Defines the color of normal text. Default is black. Supported by many recent browsers.

TOPMARGIN="pixels" Indents the top margin of the document the specified number of pixels. Internet Explorer only.

VLINK="color" Defines the color of visited link text. Default is purple.

The BGCOLOR, LINK, TEXT, and VLINK attributes can use the same colors as the COLOR attribute of the <FONT ...> tag. See Color Values.

Example

<BODY TEXT="White" BGCOLOR="Black" LINK="Yellow" VLINK="Lime" ALINK="Red">
Body text goes here. Body and text will have "inverted" colors.
</BODY>

Netscape Gold Editor

Choose Properties > Document.

Word IA

Choose Format > Background and Links.

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<BR>

Starts a new line without a blank line. The new line has the same indent as line-wrapped text.

Attributes

CLEAR=margin Breaks the line and moves vertically down until no floating images appear in the specified margin, where margin is left (left margin), right (right margin), or all (both margins). Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer only.

Example

Here is a sample of my Haiku<P>
The cat<BR>
was jonesin'<BR>
for some food<BR>
Meow.<P>
Pretty good, huh?

In a web browser, that text will look like this:

Here is a sample of my Haiku

The cat
was jonesin'
for some food
Meow.

Pretty good, huh?

Netscape Gold Editor

Choose Insert > New Line Break or press Shift+Enter.

Word IA

Press Shift+Enter.

Top

<CAPTION ...> ... </CAPTION>

Specify the caption for a table. The caption usually is centered with respect to the table. Any document body HTML tag can appear within a caption.

Attributes

ALIGN=alignment Specifies the caption's alignment with respect to the table. Alignment can be top or bottom (default is top). Internet Explorer also allows alignment values of left, right, and center.

VALIGN=alignment Specifies the caption's alignment with respect to the table. Alignment can be top or bottom. Internet Explorer only.

Example

See <TABLE ...> ... </TABLE> for an example.

Word IA

Click on the table and choose Table > Caption from the menu bar.

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<CENTER> ... </CENTER>

Center the text between the left and right margins. Place the text you want to center between the open and closing tags.

Example

<H1><CENTER>Think of Me as a Title</CENTER></H1>

looks like this in a web browser:

Think of Me as a Title

Netscape Gold Editor

Click the Center toolbar button.

Word IA

Click the Center button in the toolbar.

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<CITE> ... </CITE>

The text that appears between these tags represents a citation and typically appears in italics.

Example

This was clearly the decision in <CITE>Madison vs. Hartunian, 1996</CITE>.


Looks like this in your web browser:

This was clearly the decision in Madison vs. Hartunian, 1996.

Word IA

Select text and choose CITE from the Style drop-down list.

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<CODE> ... </CODE>

The text that appears between these tags represents programming code and typically appears in monospaced font.

Example

Here's a simple BASIC FOR…NEXT loop that counts from 1 to 10:<P>
<CODE>FOR X = 1 TO 10<BR>
? X<BR>
NEXT X</CODE><P>
And now we're back to regular font.

Here's how those lines look in your web browser:

Here's a simple BASIC FOR…NEXT loop that counts from 1 to 10:

FOR X = 1 TO 10
? X
NEXT X

And now we're back to regular font.

Word IA

Select text and choose CODE from the Style drop-down list.


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<COMMENT>...</COMMENT>

Indicates a comment, which is ignored by the web browser. Identical in function to <!-- -->

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<DD> ... </DD>

These tags specify a definition item in a definition list. Definition items typically are indented and formatted paragraph style after the term they define.

Example

See <DL> ... </DL> for an example.

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<DFN>... </DFN>

Marks the defining instance of a term (the first time a term is used.) Most browsers display the text in italics.

Example

If you need a high-performance hard drive, go for <DFN>SCSI 2</DFN>.

Looks like this in your word browser:

If you need a high-performance hard drive, go for SCSI 2.

Word IA

Select text to style and choose Definition, DFN from the Style drop-down list.

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<DIR> ... </DIR>

These tags define a directory list in which the items can contain up to 20 characters each. In some browsers, items in a directory list are be arranged in columns, typically 24 characters wide. In a directory list, each list items typically is preceded by bullets and does not have extra white space above or below it.

Example

<H4>Student Scores </H4>

<DIR>

<LI>0-20 (10%)

<LI>21-40 (20%)

<LI>41-60 (30%)

<LI>61-80 (20%)

<LI>81-100 (20%)

</DIR>

looks like below in this browser:

Student Scores

  • 0-20 (10%)
  • 21-40 (20%)
  • 41-60 (30%)
  • 61-80 (20%)
  • 81-100 (20%)
  • Netscape Gold Editor

    Select the list and choose Properties > Text > Paragraph > List Item (under Paragraph Style) > Directory List (under Style).

    Word IA

    Select the list and choose Directory,DIR from the Style drop-down list. To see columnar listing, save and close the document, then reopen it.

    Top

    <DIV> ... </DIV>

    These tags center, left-align, or right-align text with respect to the current margins on the page. Place the text you want to align between the open and closing tags. Netscape Navigator only.

    Attributes

    ALIGN="alignment" Specifies how to align the text. Alignment can be left, center, or right.

    Examples

    <DIV ALIGN="left">Left align this text. </DIV><BR>
    <DIV ALIGN="right">Right align this text.</DIV> <BR>
    <DIV ALIGN="center">Center this text.</DIV><P>
    
    

    Looks like this in your current web browser:

    Left align this text.

    Right align this text.

    Center this text.

    Top

    <DL ...> ... </DL>

    This pair of tags defines a definition list (or description list) that typically consists of definition terms and definition items. Definition lists are perfect for glossary-type lists in which the term appears flush left and the definition is in indented in paragraph style below the term.

    Attributes

    COMPACT Tells the browser to display the list in a compact format (if possible).

    Example

    <H2><CENTER>Glossary </CENTER></H2>
    <DL>
    <DT>HTML <DD>An acronym for Hypertext Markup Language. A set of tags
    used to format text in pages published on the World Wide Web.
    <DT>VRML <DD>An acronym for Virtual Reality Markup Language. A programming
    language for creating 3D virtual worlds that can be viewed and
    explored over the Internet.
    </DL>

    Looks like this in your web browser:

    Glossary

    HTML
    An acronym for Hypertext Markup Language. A set of tags used to format text in pages published on the World Wide Web.
    VRML
    An acronym for Virtual Reality Markup Language. A programming language for creating 3D virtual worlds that can be viewed and explored over the Internet.

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Choose either Description Title or Description Text as appropriate; or, choose Properties > Paragraph > Description Title or Properties > Paragraph > Description Text.

    Word IA

    1. Type the first term in your definition list.
    2. Press Tab, then type the definition for the term.
    3. After you have typed the definition, press ENTER. Repeat steps 1 through 3 for all the definitions in your list.
    4. Then, select all the text you typed in steps 1 through 3.
    5. In the Style box, click Definition List <DL> or Definition Compact <DL COMPACT>.

    You don't directly apply the Definition Term <DT> style to the terms in your list. Instead, save, close, and reopen the document to see formatted list.

    Top

    <DT> ... </DT>

    Specifies a definition term in a definition list. Definition terms typically are formatted flush left and are followed by the indented definition in a paragraph-style format.

    Example

    See <DL> ... </DL> for an example.

    Top

    <EM> ... </EM>

    Marks emphasized text which is typically displayed in italics.

    Example

    I <EM>really</EM> mean what I say, so <EM>do not</EM> ignore me!
    

    Looks like this in this browser:

    I really mean what I say, so do not ignore me!



    Word IA

    Select text and choose Emphasis,EM from the Style drop-down list.

    Top

    <EMBED ...>

    This tag lets you put a document directly onto an HTML page. You can embed documents of any type (including Netscape plug-ins), although the user must have an application that can view the embedded data. The document appears when the user double-clicks it. Windows version of Netscape Navigator only.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies the alignment of the object on the page. Alignment can be left or right.

    BORDER=thickness Specifies the thickness of the object's border in pixels.

    HEIGHT=height Specifies the height in pixels of the embedded object.

    SRC="sourcefile" Specifies the URL or filename of the embedded document file.

    WIDTH=width Specifies the width in pixels of the embedded object.

    Example

    <EMBED SRC="picture.bmp" ALIGN=right BORDER=10 HEIGHT=50 WIDTH=50>
    


    See Also


    Netscape's Embed Tag Syntax and, if you're embedding sound, see Netscape's Live Audio Syntax.


    Top


    <FONT ...> ... </FONT>

    This pair of tags sets the font size, font color, and font face of text between the open and closing tags. Some browsers support some attributes of this tag pair, but the tags work mainly with Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer only.

    Attributes

    SIZE = size Sets the font size relative to the <BASEFONT SIZE> (if basefont is specified). Size can be in the range 1 @nd 7 and can be preceded with an optional + (increase size) or - (decrease size) symbol. Default size is 3.

    COLOR="#rrggbb" or COLOR="color" Specifies the font color. You can express color as a hexadecimal RGB triplet (#rrggbb) or color value. Color names work only in Netscape Navigator 2.

    FACE=name [,name] [,name] Sets the typeface used to display text, where name is the typeface name. The typeface must already exist on the user's computer; if it doesn't, the specified alternative font (if any) or the browser's default font is used. Internet Explorer only.

    Examples

    <FONT SIZE=7 COLOR=#00FF00 FACE="Arial">This text is big, green, and Arial typeface in Internet Explorer. It's just big and green and default typeface in Netscape Navigator.</FONT>
    

    Comes out like this in your current browser:

    This text is big, green, and Arial typeface in Internet Explorer. It's just big and green and default typeface in Netscape Navigator.

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and choose a size from the Size drop-down list on the toolbar or click the Font Color toolbar button and choose a color.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Format > Font from the menu bar.

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    <FORM> ... </FORM>

    Defines the start and end of a fill-in-the-blank form.

    Attributes

    ACTION="URL" Specifies the URL where the contents of the form will be submitted. When ACTION is omitted, the URL of the document itself is assumed.

    ENCTYPE="format" Specifies the format of the submitted data in case the protocol specified by METHOD doesn't impose a format.

    METHOD="method" Specifies the method used by the protocol. Typically, method is GET or POST.

    Example

    <FORM ACTION="mailto:nobody@nowhere.com" METHOD="POST" ENCTYPE="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"><P>
    Your name: <INPUT NAME="01Name" VALUE="" MAXLENGTH="50" SIZE=50><P>
    Your address: <INPUT NAME="02address" VALUE="" MAXLENGTH="50" SIZE=50><P>
    Your City, State, Zip: <INPUT NAME="CSZ" VALUE="" MAXLENGTH="50" SIZE=50><P>
    <INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE="Submit" NAME="subbtn"><INPUT TYPE=RESET VALUE="Reset">
    </FORM>
    
    

    Looks like this in this web browser. (The Submit button won't do anything in this example though):

    Your name:

    Your address:

    Your City, State, Zip:

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > Form Field from the menu bar.

    Top


    <FRAME>

    Defines a single frame within a frameset. Netscape Navigator 2.0 and later only. Must be enclosed within <FRAMESET>...</FRAMESET> tags.

    Attributes

    MARGINHEIGHT="pixels" Specifies the size of the upper and lower margins for the frame in pixels.

    MARGINWIDTH="pixels" Specifies the size of the left and right margins for the frame in pixels.

    NAME="window_name" Assigns a name to the frame so that other documents can link to it. Names must start with alphanumeric characters.

    NORESIZE Prevents the reader from resizing the frame.

    SCROLLING="value" Specifies whether to allow a scroll bar. Value can be yes (scroll bar is always visible), no (scroll bar never appears), or auto (scroll bar appears if necessary; this is the default).

    SRC="URL" Specifies the URL of the document to display in this frame. If omitted, the frame appears as blank.

    Example

    See <FRAMESET> for an example.

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    <FRAMESET> ... </FRAMESET>

    The frameset is the main container for a frame. A frame document is similar to a normal HTML document, except the body container is replaced by a FRAMESET container. The frameset container holds the sub-documents, or frames, that make up the page. Netscape Navigator only.

    Attributes

    COLS="column_width_list" A comma-separated list that defines the number and width of the columns in the window. Each value can be an absolute pixel value, percentage values between 1% and 100%, or relative scaling values (* tells the browser to calculate the width based on the other values given). The total number of columns must equal the window width. If omitted, one column is assumed.

    ROWS="row_width_list" Same as the COLS attribute, except that it defines the number and width of the rows in the windows. If omitted, one row is assumed.

    Example

    Here's a sample structure of a web page that displays frames:
    <HTML><HEAD> <TITLE>It's a frame, I tell ya'!</TITLE></HEAD>
    <!-- Frameset has 3 columns. Left and right columns are 20% of window size, middle column fills in.-->
    <!-- Content for each frame is in a separate file: left.htm, middle.htm, and right.htm -->
    <FRAMESET COLS="20%,*,20%">
    <FRAME SRC="left.htm" NAME="left">
    <FRAME SRC="middle.htm" NAME="middle">
    <FRAME SRC="right.htm" NAME="right">
    </FRAMESET>
    <!-- End of Frameset -->
    <!-- Start of content that browsers without frame support will see. -->
    <NOFRAMES>
    Alternative content for people who don't have Netscape browsers goes here.
    </NOFRAMES>
    <!-- End of content that browsers without frame support will see. -->
    </HTML>

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    <HEAD> ... </HEAD>

    Encloses information about the web page - not the content that the reader sees. The <TITLE> ... </TITLE> tags can appear within the <HEAD> ... </HEAD> tags. The head can also include these tags: <BASE>, <ISINDEX>, <LINK>, <NEXTID>, and <META>.

    Example

    <HTML>
    <HEAD>
    <TITLE>My Home Page</TITLE> <! Appears in browser window frame>
    </HEAD>
    <BODY>
    Text and pictures that the reader sees goes inside the <BODY>…</BODY> tags.
    </BODY>
    </HTML>
    

    Top

    <Hn> ... </Hn>

    This tag pair formats text between the open and close tags as any of six levels of heading (where n is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6). <H1> is the highest heading level, followed by <H2> ... <H6>. The appearance of each heading style is determined by the browser.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies the heading's alignment, which can be left, center, or right.

    Example

    <H1>This is heading level 1</H1>
    <H2>This is heading level 2</H2>
    <H3>This is heading level 3</H3>
    <H4>This is heading level 4</H4>
    <H5>This is heading level 5</H5>
    <H6>This is heading level 6</H6>
    
    

    looks like this in this browser:

    This is heading level 1

    This is heading level 2

    This is heading level 3

    This is heading level 4

    This is heading level 5
    This is heading level 6


    Netscape Gold Editor

    Choose a Heading option from the Paragraph Style drop-down list on the toolbar, or choose Properties > Paragraph > Heading n from the menu bar.

    Word IA

    Choose a Heading option from the Style drop-down list.

    Top

    <HR>

    Draws a horizontal line or rule across the page. Horizontal rules are great for dividing sections of text on the page.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies the alignment of the line with respect to current page margins. Alignment can be left, center, or right. Default is center.

    NOSHADE Displays the line as a solid bar. Default is shaded and engraved.

    SIZE = size Specifies the relative thickness of the line. Size is a number. Default is 2.

    WIDTH=pixels or WIDTH=percent% Specifies the width of the line in number of pixels or as a percent of the current page width. Default is 100 percent.

    Examples

    <HR> <!-- Rule spans the page -->
    <HR WIDTH=100> <!-- Rule is 100 pixels wide and centered. -->
    <HR ALIGN=left WIDTH=30%> <!-- Rule is thick, left aligned, and 30% of the page width. -->
    <HR ALIGN=left WIDTH=30% NOSHADE><!-- Same as just above, but without shading. -->
    
    

    The tags above look like this in your web browser:





    Netscape Gold Editor

    Click the Insert Horiz. Line toolbar button, or choose Insert > Horizontal Line from the menu bar. To specify attributes, click on the line to select it. Then choose Properties > Horizontal Line.

    Word IA

    Click the Horizontal Rule button on the toolbar. To specify attributes, use Insert > HTML Markup.

    Top

    <HTML> ... </HTML>

    Marks the beginning and end of an entire HTML document.

    Example

    The following listing shows the basic structure of an HTML document:

    <HTML>
    <HEAD>
    ...head stuff goes here
    </HEAD>
    <BODY>
    ...body stuff goes here
    </BODY>
    </HTML>
    


    Top

    <I> ... </I>

    Displays text between the tags as italicized.

    Example

    Did you know that SCSI is pronounced <I>scuzzy</I>?

    Looks like this in your web browser:

    Did you know that SCSI is pronounced scuzzy?

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and click the Italic toolbar button, or press Ctrl+I.

    Word IA

    Select text and click the Italic (I) button on the toolbar, or press Ctrl+I.

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    <IMG ...>

    The <IMG ...> element puts inline graphics into your Web pages. You can put <IMG ...> elements within anchors to create clickable links. This tag has many attributes, including new ones to allow client-side image maps, embedded inline video, and embedded inline VRML worlds. Many of the new attributes are specific to Internet Explorer and/or Netscape Navigator.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Controls how the image alingns with text on the same line. Standard alignment values are top, middle, and bottom. Additional values supported by Netscape Navigator are left, right, texttop, absmiddle, baseline, absbottom.

    ALT="alternate_text" Specifies text that appears instead of the inline image in non-graphical environments.

    BORDER=thickness Specifies the thickness of the border in pixels.

    CONTROLS Displays a set of controls under the inline video clip window.

    DYNSRC="video_filename" Specifies the location of an inline video clip (.AVI). Internet Explorer only.

    HEIGHT=height Specifies the height of the image in pixels.

    HSPACE=horizontal_space Specifies the horizontal_space to the left and right of the image in pixels.

    ISMAP Specifies that the image is an image map. Users can click hot spots on the map to access different URLs (if an appropriate image handling script for the map exists on the server).

    LOOP=repeat Defines how many times the inline video clip loops when activated, where repeat is a number or the value -1 or INFINITE. If the value is -1 or INFINITE, the video plays continuously until another page is loaded.

    LOOPDELAY=delay Specifies the lenght of the wait, in milliseconds, between play loops for an inline video clip.

    LOWSRC="low_res_image_file" Specifies the low resolution image to display before the document and all of its images are fully loaded. After loading, the browser displays the image specified by the SRC attribute. Netscape Navigator only (ignored by other browsers).

    SRC="image_file" Specifies the URL or filename of the inline image.

    START=start Specifies when an inline video clip will play. Start can be FILEOPEN or MOUSEOVER (or both, separated by a comma).

    USEMAP="map_location" Specifies the location of a client-side image map. If the map_location starts with #, the image map is in the same document as the <IMG ...> tag. The map name is defined in the <MAP> tag.

    VRML="VRML_world" Embeds the named VRML_world into the HTML document with navigation controls below the embedding pane. Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer with VRML plug-ins only.

    VSPACE=vertical_space Specifies the vertical_space above and below the image in pixels.

    WIDTH=width Specifies the width of the image in pixels.

    Example

    <!-- Image and More About Us are clickable hot spots -->
    <A HREF="moreinfo.htm"><IMG SRC="photo_hi.gif" LOWSRC="photo_lo.gif" ALT="Who We Are!" HSPACE=10 VSPACE=10 BORDER=5 ALIGN=middle></A>
    <H3><A HREF="moreinfo.htm">More About Us!</A></H3>
    
    

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Click the Insert Image toolbar button or choose Insert > Image. Double-click image to change.

    Word IA

    Click the Picture button in the toolbar. Double-click image to change.

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    <INPUT ...> ... </INPUT>

    This tag sets up an input field to allow data entry in a form. In JavaScript-capable browsers, the <INPUT> tag can accept an event handler as an attribute.

    Attributes

    ALIGN="alignment" Specifies the vertical alignment of the image given in TYPE=IMAGE (see below). Possible alignments are the same as for the <IMG> element.

    CHECKED Marks the checkbox or radio button as selected. Unselected checkboxes and radio buttons don't return any name/value pairs when the form is submitted.

    MAXLENGTH="value" Specifies the maximum number of characters the user can enter into a text field. If value is greater than the size given by the SIZE attribute, the field will scroll. Default is unlimited length.

    NAME="name" Specifies the name used when sending the form's contents. The name provides a unique identifier for the field and is required for most input types.

    SIZE = "size" Specifies the size or precision of the field. For example, quot;20" means a text field will be 20 characters wide.

    SRC="image-file" Specifies the URN or URL of an image. Used only with TYPE=IMAGE.

    TYPE="type" Specifies the type of data the field accepts. Default is TEXT. Valid types are: CHECKBOX, HIDDEN, IMAGE, PASSWORD, RADIO, RESET, SUBMIT, TEXT, TEXTAREA.

    VALUE="value" Specifies a default value for the field. Required if TYPE=RADIO.

    Example

    See <FORM ...> ... </FORM> for an example.

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > Form Field

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    <ISINDEX ...>

    Tells the browser that the linked document is an index document that users can both read and use for keyword searching. For keyword searching to work, the server must have a search engine that supports the <ISINDEX> feature. Place the <ISINDEX> element between the <HEAD>...</HEAD> elements.

    The tag adds the default text "This is a searchable index. Enter search keywords:" followed by an input box where the user can type keywords, to the top of your web page.

    Attributes

    ACTION="cgi_scriptname" Cgi_scriptname specifies the name of the cgi script or program file that will process the keyword a user types into the input box. Netscape Navigator only.

    PROMPT="prompt" Changes the default This is a searchable index... text to prompt. Netscape Navigator only.

    Example

    <HEAD>
    <TITLE>This is a cool index.</TITLE> <ISINDEX PROMPT="So what's it gonna be?">
    
    </HEAD>

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    <KBD> ... </KBD>

    The text that appears between these tags represents user-typed text and typically appears in a monospaced font.

    Example

    Please type <KBD>copy myfile.txt myfile.bak</KBD> and press Enter.
    Shows up like this in your current web browser
    
    

    Please type copy myfile.txt myfile.bak and press Enter.

    Word IA

    Select the text to format and choose Keyboard,KBD from the Style drop-down list.

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    <LI> ... </LI>

    Specifies a single list item in a <DIR> (directory), <MENU> (menu), <OL> (ordered), or <UL> (unordered) list. The appearance of the list item depends on the type of list in which it is located.

    Example

    The tags below

    <P>
    To get your CD-ROM drive working:
    <OL>
    <LI>Stand up
    <LI>Touch the tip of your index finger to the top of your head,and hold it there.
    <LI>Twirl around clockwise three times.
    <LI>Bark like a monkey.
    </OL>
    <P>
    If the drive still doesn't work, read the instructions, or call the drive manufacturer.
    <P>
    
    

    Look like this in your web browser:

    To get your CD-ROM drive working:

    1. Stand up.
    2. Touch the tip of your index finger to the top of your head, and hold it there.
    3. Twirl around clockwise three times.
    4. Bark like a monkey.

    If the drive still doesn't work, read the instructions, or call the drive manufacturer.

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Choose List Item from the Paragraph Style drop-down list on the toolbar.

    Word IA

    Select the entire list and choose a list style from the Style drop-down list, or click the Numbered List or Bulleted List button in the toolbar.

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    <LINK ...>

    Indicates a relationship between the current document and some other object. You can link such things as author name, related indexes and glossaries, and so forth, and you can include as many links as you need. Place the <LINK> element between the <HEAD>...</HEAD> elements.

    The <LINK> element appears between <HEAD> ... </HEAD> tags and takes the same attributes as the <A>...</A> element; however, the <LINK> element has no closing tag. See the <A>...</A> entry in the alphabetical reference for a list of attributes that apply.

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    <MAP>...</MAP>

    Defines the clickable hotspots on a client-side image map, and the action to be taken when the reader clicks the hotspot.

    Attributes

    NAME = "name" Defines the name of the map, as referred to by the USEMAP attribute of the <IMG> tag that shows the picture.

    AREA SHAPE = "shape" Defines the shape of the hotspot as RECT for rectangle.

    COORDS="x,y," Specifies the hotspot as pixel coordinates within the picture.

    JAVASCRIPT:code/function Specifies JavaScript code, or the name of an existing custom function, to execute when the reader clicks the hotspot.

    HREF = "url" Specifies the URL to take the reader to after clicking the hot spot.

    NOHREF Specifies a neutral area.

    TARGET="framename" Specifies which frame to use to display a page within a framed site.

    Example

    <MAP NAME="navmap">
    <AREA SHAPE=RECT COORDS="4,158,97,184" HREF=javascript:hopto('daily.htm')>
    <AREA SHAPE=RECT COORDS="0,327,98,353" HREF=javascript:frameless()>
    <AREA SHAPE=RECT COORDS="40,361,63,388" HREF=javascript:goTop()>
    <AREA SHAPE=RECT COORDS="5,17,102,114" HREF=javascript:hopto('home.htm')>
    </MAP>
    <IMG SRC = "mymap.gif" USEMAP = "#navmap">
    
    

    How To

    Windows 95 and NT users can use Map This! To easily create image maps. See Chapter 24 in HTML Publishing Bible.

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    <MARQUEE ...> ... </MARQUEE>

    Displays the text between the tags as a scrolling marquee. Internet Explorer only.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies how the text around the marquee should line up with respect to the marquee. Alignment can be top, middle, or bottom.

    BEHAVIOR=behavior Specifies how text should scroll. Behavior can be scroll, slide, or alternate (scroll is the default).

    BGCOLOR=color Specifies the background color for the marquee. The BGCOLOR attribute can use the same colors as the COLOR attribute of the <FONT ...> tag.

    DIRECTION=direction Specifies the direction in which text should scroll. Direction can be left or right (left is the default).

    HEIGHT=height or HEIGHT=height% Specifies the height of the marquee in pixels or a percentage of the screen height.

    HSPACE=pixels Specifies the left and right margins for the outside of the marquee in pixels.

    LOOP=repeat Defines how many times the marquee loops when activated, where repeat is a number or the value -1 or INFINITE. If the value is -1 or INFINITE, the marquee loops continuously until another page is loaded.

    SCROLLAMOUNT=pixels Specifies the number of pixels the marquee text moves between each redraw.

    SCROLLDELAY=milliseconds Specifies the speed of each redraw in milliseconds.

    VSPACE=pixels Specifies the top and bottom margins for the outside of the marquee in pixels.

    WIDTH=width or WIDTH=width% Specifies the width of the marquee in pixels or as a percentage of the screen height.

    Example

    <MARQUEE>This text will do a slow scroll from left to right.</MARQUEE><P>
    Are you dizzy yet?<P>
    <MARQUEE BEHAVIOR=Alternate BGCOLOR=Red>This is the marquee in red. It goes back and forth.</MARQUEE><P>
    Are you dizzy yet?<P>
    <MARQUEE BGCOLOR=Lime HEIGHT=50% WIDTH=50%>This lime marquee will be half the height and width of the screen.</MARQUEE>
    <MARQUEE SCROLLDELAY=10  SCROLLAMOUNT=30>A quickie marquee.</MARQUEE>
    If you're using a web browser that supports marquees (i.e. Internet Explorer 2.0) the text below will be scrolling across the screen.
    This text will do a slow scroll from left to right.
    Are you dizzy yet?
    This is the marquee in red. It goes back and forth.
    Are you dizzy yet?
    This lime marquee will be half the height and width of the screen.
    A quickie marquee.
    
    

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > Marquee from the menu bar.

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    <MENU> ... </MENU>

    This tag pair defines a menu list of items that typically appear one line per item. Menu lists are more compact than unordered lists. List items typically are indented and may be preceded by a bullet.

    Example

    <H4>What's on the Menu?</H4>
    <MENU>
    <LI>Fried Filberts
    <LI>Grilled Grapes
    <LI>Smoked Squash
    
    

    </MENU>

    Looks like this (below) in your web browser:

    What's on the Menu?

  • Fried Filberts
  • Grilled Grapes
  • Smoked Squash
  • Netscape Gold Editor

    Select the list and choose Properties > Text > Paragraph > List Item (under Paragraph Style) > Menu List (under Style).

    Word IA

    Select the list and choose Menu from the Style drop-down list.

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    <META ...>

    This tag specifies miscellaneous information about the document that isn't defined by other HTML elements. Server and client programs can extract this meta information for identification, indexing, and cataloging purposes. Place the <META> tag between the <HEAD>...</HEAD> tags.

    Attributes

    CONTENT="content" Defines the content associated with the NAME or HTTP-EQUIV attribute.

    HTTP-EQUIV Binds the element to an HTTP response header. If you omit this attribute, the NAME value is considered to be equivalent.

    NAME="name" Assigns a name to the meta-information, such as Author, Classification, Description, and Keywords. If you omit this attribute, the HTTP-EQUIV value is considered to be equivalent.

    Example

    <HEAD>
    <TITLE>A Meta Example</TITLE>
    <META NAME="Author" CONTENT="Alan Simpson">
    <META NAME="GENERATOR" CONTENT="Mozilla/2.0GoldB2 (Win32)">
    <META NAME="Description" CONTENT="This is my silly little test page">
    <META NAME="KeyWords" CONTENT="Test, HTML, Silly">
    </HEAD>
    
    

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Choose Properties > Document, click the General tab, fill in the text boxes on the tab, and choose OK.

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > HTML Markup from the menu bar.

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    <NOBR> ... </NOBR>

    Prevents the browser from word-wrapping any of the text between the open and close tags. Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer only. This feature is useful for character sequences that shouldn't be broken by word wrapping to the next line, but it can look mighty weird if the user resizes the window to be narrower than the original width of the text between the tags. Text will be cut off at the right until the window is resized larger.

    Example

    <NOBR>Breaking up is so hard to do, that we really don't want to do it here. We'll ramble on so you can see what this looks like. Rest assured that we well end up with a pretty long line here. It's a couple lines in Word IA.</NOBR>


    Here's the chunk of text above displayed in your current web browser:

    Breaking up is so hard to do, that we really don't want to do it here. We'll ramble on so you can see what this looks like. Rest assured that we well end up with a pretty long line here. It's a couple lines in Word IA.

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    <NOFRAMES> ... </NOFRAMES>

    This pair of tags provides alternative content for browsers that don't support frames. See the <FRAMESET> entry for an example. Netscape Navigator only.

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    <OL> ... </OL>

    Defines an ordered (numbered) list that appears with a sequential number or letter next to each list item. List items are usually indented.

    Attributes

    COMPACT Displays the list in a more compact format.

    START=start Specifies the starting value for the list, using the default TYPE. Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator only.

    TYPE=type Defines whether the list starts with capital letters (A), small letters (a), large roman numerals (I), small roman numerals (i), or numbers (1, the default). Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator only.

    VALUE=count Specifies the count (or increment) between list items.

    Example

    The example below shows a list marked as an ordered list (<OL>) with an unordered list (<UL>) embedded within it:

    <H3>Things to Do</H3>
    <OL>
    <LI>Wake up, get ready
    <LI>Get kids off to school
    <LI>Go to the grocery store
    <UL>
    <LI>Milk
    <LI>Bananas
    <LI>Bread
    <LI>Carrots
    </UL>
    <LI>Pick up kids
    <LI>Get dinner ready
    </OL>
    
    

    Here's what that list looks like in your web browser:

    Things to Do

    1. Wake up, get ready
    2. Get kids off to school
    3. Go to the grocery store
    4. Pick up kids
    5. Get dinner ready

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select the list and click the Numbered List button in the toolbar.

    Word IA

    Select the list and click the Numbered List button in the toolbar. Use the Increase Indent and Decrease Indent buttns on the toolbar to control the depth of the indentation.

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    <OPTION ...> ...

    This tag identifies a single option within a select (drop-down list) box. You must use it within <SELECT...> ... </SELECT> tags inside of <FORM>...</FORM> tags.

    Attributes

    DISABLED A proposed attribute. Not implemented now.

    SELECTED Identified the options that's selected by default. If omitted, the form shows the first option in the list.

    VALUE="value" Indicates the value returned when the user chooses this option. If you omit the VALUE attribute, the form returns the value of the option itself.

    Example

    <FORM NAME = "selectbox">
    <P>
    <SELECT NAME="FavoriteColor">
    <OPTION>Red
    <OPTION>Orange
    <OPTION>Yellow
    <OPTION>Green
    <OPTION SELECTED>Blue
    <OPTION>Violet
    </SELECT>
    </FORM>
    
    

    The tags above look and work like the select box below:

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > Form Field > Selection from the menu bar.

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    <P>…</P>

    This pair of tags marks a paragraph. Paragraphs usually are surrounded by extra space (a line or half a line); in some browsers, the first line is indented. The closing </P> tag is optional, and often omitted.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies the alignment of the paragraph text between the document margins. Alignment options are left, center, and right.

    Example

    This paragraph isn't very interesting, but it makes the point and it will word-wrap to additional lines as needed.<P>This is another pretty boring paragraph, but you can see that it's set apart from the paragraph just above it by some extra space.
    <P ALIGN=center>Centered paragraph (Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.)</P>
    
    

    The text shown above looks like this in your browser:

    This paragraph isn't very interesting, but it makes the point and it will word-wrap to additional lines as needed.

    This is another pretty boring paragraph, but you can see that it's set apart from the paragraph just above it by some extra space.

    Centered paragraph (Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.)

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Press Enter at the end of any paragraph.

    Word IA

    Press Enter at the end of any paragraph. To insert a <P> tag with an attribute, use Insert > HTML Markup.

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    <PRE> ... </PRE>

    This tag pair uses text "as is" in fixed-width font. Presumably, the text is already formatted as you want it, with line breaks that force text to start on a new line. You also can include anchor elements, character highlighting elements, and the horizontal tab character (though tabs are not recommended). Do not use elements that define paragraph formatting within the preformatted text.

    Attributes

    WIDTH=width Specifies the maximum number of characters for a line (for example, 40, 80, and 132). Default is 80.

    Example

    <PRE>This text is formatted to break exactly where I want it to.
    It will appear in fixed-width text.</PRE>
    
    

    Looks like this in your browser:

    This text is formatted to break exactly where I want it to.
    It will appear in fixed-width text.
    
    

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Choose Formatted from the Paragraph Style drop-down list on the toolbar or choose Properties > Paragraph > Formatted from the menu bar.

    Word IA

    Choose Preformatted, PRE from the Style drop-down list.

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    <S> ... </S>

    Displays text between the tags in strikethough style

    Example

    Yours for <S>absolutely nothing</S> 100.00!
    
    

    Looks like this in your browser:

    Yours for absolutely nothing 100.00!

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and choose Properties > Character > Strikethrough.

    Word IA

    Select the text to format and choose Strikethrough,STRIKE from the Style drop-down list.

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    <SAMP> ... </SAMP>

    Use these tags to differentiate text that should look like a "sample" of something to the reader, such as sample programming code. Most browsers display the sample text in a monospaced font.

    Example

    To create a variable and assign it a value use the syntax:<P>
    <SAMP>
    var <I>variablename</I> = <I>value</I>
    </SAMP>
    <P>where <I>variablename</I> is a valid variable name, and <I>value</I> is the value you want to store in the variable.
    
    

    When displayed in a web browser, the text above looks like this:

    To create a variable and assign it a value use the syntax:

    var variablename = value

    where variablename is a valid variable name, and value is the value you want to store in the variable.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Sample,SAMP from the Style drop-down list.

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    <SCRIPT...>...</SCRIPT>

    This tag pair marks the beginning and end of a script embedded in a page.

    Attributes

    LANGUAGE=language Specifies the language in which the script is written.

    Example powerful of the new selectors is the universalselector. This is specified using an asterisk(*), and it matches any element in the document.Thus, use this declaration to make sure all elements have a color ofblack:

    * {color: black;}

    When used as part of a contextual selector, the universalselector can create some interesting effects. For example, assumethat you want to make gray any UL element that is

    I'm just regular old body text.
    <SCRIPT Language="JavaScript">
    <!-- hide script from non JavaScript browsers
    var now = new Date()
    var VisitStart = now.getTime()
    </SCRIPT>
    Back to regular old body text.
    
    

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    <SELECT ...> ... </SELECT>

    This tag pair creates a select box (drop-down list) in a form. Each option within the box is defined by an <OPTION> tag.

    Attributes

    ERROR A proposed attribute. Not currently implemented.

    MULTIPLE Lets users choose more than one option from the list.

    NAME="name" Specifies the name used when sending the form's contents. The name provides a unique identifier for the group of options.

    SIZE="size" Specifies the number of visible items. If size is greater than one, the options appear in a list.

    Example

    <FORM >
    <SELECT MULTIPLE NAME="ColoList" >
    <OPTION VALUE="Red">Red
    <OPTION VALUE="Orange">Orange
    <OPTION VALUE="Yellow">Yellow
    <OPTION VALUE="Green">Green
    <OPTION VALUE="Blue">Blue
    <OPTION VALUE="Indigo">Indigo
    <OPTION VALUE="Violet">Violet
    </SELECT>
    </FORM>
    
    

    The tags above present this option list in your web browser:

    See <OPTION></OPTION> for an example of using <SELECT> to create a drop-down list.

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > Form Field > Selection.

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    <SMALL> ... </SMALL>

    Text between the <SMALL></SMALL> tags is displayed in a size that's slightly smaller than the base font size.

    Example

    If businesses and lawyers were just honest with people, we wouldn't need all that <SMALL>fine print</SMALL> in the contracts we sign.
    
    

    The text appears small only in web browsers that support the <SMALL> tag. In your current web browser, the sentence above looks like this:

    If businesses and lawyers were just honest with people, we wouldn't need all that fine print in the contracts we sign.

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    <SOUND ...>

    Inserts a background sound on the page. The sound file must be in .WAV format. It plays when its position is visible on the page. NCSA Mosaic only.

    Attributes

    SRC="soundfile" Defines the name of the sound file to play in the background.

    LOOP=INFINITE Plays the sound continuously until another page is loaded.

    DELAY=sec Delays the play of an inline sound for sec number of seconds.

    Examples

    <SOUND SRC="spooky.wav" LOOP=INFINITE>
    <SOUND SRC="robot.wav" DELAY=10>
    
    

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    <STRIKE> ... </STRIKE>

    Displays strikethough text between the tags, same as the <S></S> tags..

    Example

    The due date shall be <STRIKE>June 1, 1997</STRIKE> July 1, 1997.
    
    

    The line above looks like this in your web browser:

    The due date shall be June 1, 1997 July 1, 1997.


    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and choose Properties > Character > Strikethrough.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Strikethrough,STRIKE from the Style drop-down list.

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    <STRONG> ... </STRONG>

    The text between these tags is emphasized - displayed in boldface by most browsers.

    Example

    <STRONG>Do as I say, not as I do!</STRONG> is a frequent admonition from parent to child.
    
    

    The line above looks like this in your current web browser:

    Do as I say, not as I do! is a frequent admonition from parent to child.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Strong,STRONG from the Style drop-down list.

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    <SUB> ... </SUB>

    Subscripts the text between the tags.

    Example

    Hurry! Give me a glass of H<SUB>2</SUB>O!
    
    

    The line above looks like this in your web browser:

    Hurry! Give me a glass of H20!


    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and choose Properties > Character > Subscript.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Format > Font > Subscript.

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    <SUP> ... </SUP>

    Displays superscript (raised) text between the tags.

    Example

    Einstein's famous equation e = mc<SUP>2</SUP> tells us that energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared.
    
    

    The line above looks like this in your current web browser:

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 tells us that energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared.

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and choose Properties > Character > Superscript.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Format > Font > Superscript.

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    <TABLE ...> ... </TABLE>

    This tag pair specifies the start and end of a table. All elements between the <TABLE ...> ... </TABLE> tags are part of the table. Any table elements outside of these tags are ignored.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies the table's alignment with respect to the page. Alignment can be left or right. Internet Explorer only.

    BGCOLOR=color Specifies the background color for the table using color triplets from the Color Values table. Internet Explorer only.

    BORDER or BORDER=thickness Specifies the existence of and relative width of the table border. Thickness is a number. If BORDER is omitted, no borders appear.

    BORDERCOLOR=color Specifies the color for the table's border using Color Value string triplets. Internet Explorer only.

    BORDERCOLORDARK=color Used with the BORDER attribute to specify the color for the table's darker-colored three-dimensional border. Use string triplets from the Color Values list. Internet Explorer only.

    BORDERCOLORLIGHT=color Used with the BORDER attribute to specify the color for the table's lighter-colored three-dimensional border. Specify the color as a Color Value string triplet. Internet Explorer only.

    CELLPADDING=padding Specifies the amount of space between the cell's border and the cell's contents. In Netscape, the default padding is 1.

    CELLSPACING=spacing Specifies the spacing between individual cells in a table. Spacing is a number. In Netscape, the default spacing is 2.

    VALIGN=alignment Specifies an alignment of top or bottom for text within the table cells. The default is center aligned. Internet Explorer only.

    WIDTH=width or WIDTH=width% Specifies the table's width with respect to the document page. Width can be expressed in pixels or as a percentage.

    Example

    <TABLE BORDER=3 WIDTH=100% CELLPADDING=5>
    <CAPTION><B>Requirements for Netscape Gold</B></CAPTION>
    <TR> <!-- Row 1 (Header items) -->
    <TH>Platform</TH> <!-- Header for column 1 -->
    <TH>Processor</TH> <!-- Header for column 2 -->
    <TH>Disk Space (Minimum)</TH> <!-- Header for column 3 -->
    <TH>Memory (Minimum)</TH> <!-- Header for column 4 -->
    <TH>Memory (Recommended)</TH> <!-- Header for column 5 -->
    </TR><!-- End of Row 1 (Header items) -->
    <TR ALIGN=CENTER><!-- Row 2 -->
    <TD>Windows</TD> <!-- Data for row 2 column 1 -->
    <TD>486</TD> <!-- Data for row 2 column 2 -->
    <TD>5MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 2 column 3 -->
    <TD>6MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 2 column 4 -->
    <TD>8MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 2 column 5 -->
    </TR><!-- End of Row 2 -->
    <TR ALIGN=CENTER><!-- Row 3 -->
    <TD>Macintosh</TD> <!-- Data for row 3 column 1 -->
    <TD>68020</TD> <!-- Data for row 3 column 2 -->
    <TD>5MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 3 column 3 -->
    <TD>6MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 3 column 4 -->
    <TD>8MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 3 column 5 -->
    </TR><!-- End of Row 3 -->
    <TR ALIGN=CENTER><!-- Row 4 -->
    <TD>Unix</TD> <!-- Data for row 4 column 1 -->
    <TD>N/A</TD> <!-- Data for row 4 column 2 -->
    <TD>6MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 4 column 3 -->
    <TD>16MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 4 column 4 -->
    <TD>16MB</TD> <!-- Data for row 4 column 5 -->
    </TR><!-- End of Row 4 -->
    </TABLE>
    
    

    The tags above produce the following table in your web browser:

    Requirements for Netscape Gold
    Platform
    Processor
    Disk Space (Minimum)
    Memory (Minimum)
    Memory (Recommended)
    Windows
    486
    5MB
    6MB
    8MB
    Macintosh
    68020
    5MB
    6MB
    8MB
    Unix
    N/A
    6MB
    16MB
    16MB

    Word IA

    Click the Insert Table button on the toolbar. Use options in the Table pull-down menu to format and change the table.

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    <TD ...> ... </TD>

    Defines the data for a cell in a table row. Each <TD ...> ... </TD> pair corresponds to one cell within a table row <TR ...> ... </TR>. Each row within the table need not have the same number of <TD ...> ... </TD> pairs. Any document body HTML tag can appear between the tags.

    Attributes

    ALIGN=alignment Specifies the alignment of the text with respect to the left and right edges of the cell. Alignment can be left, center, or right.

    BGCOLOR=color Specifies the background color for this cell using a triplet from the Color Values table. Internet Explorer only.

    BORDERCOLOR=color Specifies the color for the cell's border using a string triplet from the Color Values table. Internet Explorer only.

    BORDERCOLORDARK=color Specifies the color for the cell's darker-colored, three-dimensional border using a string triplet from the Color Values table. Internet Explorer only.

    BORDERCOLORLIGHT=color Specifies the color for the cell's lighter-colored, three-dimensional border using a string triplet from the Color Values table. Internet Explorer only.

    COLSPAN=colspan Specifies how many columns of the table this cell should span. The default colspan is 1.

    NOWRAP Prevents the browser from wrapping the text to fit the cell width. Use with caution to avoid overly wide cells.

    ROWSPAN=rowspan Specifies how many rows of the table this cell should span. The default rowspan is 1.

    VALIGN=alignment Specifies the alignment of the text with respect to the top and bottom edges of the cell. Alignment can be top, middle, bottom, or baseline.

    Example

    See <TABLE ...> ... </TABLE> for an example.

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    <TEXTAREA ...> ... </TEXTAREA>

    These tags place a multi-line text box on a form. If you include text between the <TEXTAREA ...> and </TEXTAREA> tags, that text will appear as the initial value of the input field.

    Attributes

    COLS="width" The width of the field in fixed-width characters.

    NAME="name" Specifies the name used when sending the form's contents. The name provides a unique identifier for the field.

    ROWS="height" The height of the field in fixed-width characters.

    WRAP=wrap_type Specifies how words will wrap within the text area. Wrap_type is Off (text is sent exactly as entered; the default setting), Virtual (text displays with word wrap but is sent as a continuous line), or Physical (text displays and is sent with word wrap). Netscape Navigator 2.0 or later only.

    Example

    <FORM >
    <P>
    <TEXTAREA NAME="LifeStory" ROWS=3 COLS=50>
    Summarize your life story here...
    </TEXTAREA>
    </FORM>
    
    

    Looks like this in your web browser:

    Word IA

    Choose Insert > Form Field > Text > Multiple Line.

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    <TH ...> ... </TH>

    Defines the data for a cell in a table header. Each <TH ...> ... </TH> pair corresponds to one cell within a table row <TR ...> ... </TR>. Any document body HTML tag can appear between the tags. Table header cells appear in bold font and are centered by default.

    The attributes for the <TH ...> ... </TH> element are the same as for the <TD ...> ... </TD> element.

    Example

    See <TABLE ...> ... </TABLE> for an example.

    Word IA

    Select top table row and choose Table > Cell Type > Table Header.

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    <TITLE></TITLE>

    Specifies the page title that will appear in the browser's title bar. The <TITLE></TITLE> tags should be placed between the <HEAD></HEAD> tags.

    Example

    The title bar for this document shows HTML Publishing Bible Electronic HTML Reference because these tags are up near the top of this document:

    <HEAD>
    <TITLE>HTML Publishing Bible Electronic HTML Reference</TITLE>
    </HEAD>
    
    

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Choose Properties > Document > Title.

    Word IA

    Click the Title button in the toolbar.

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    <TR ...> ... </TR>

    This tag pair defines a row in a table. There are as many rows in the table as there are <TR ...> ... </TR> pairs within the table. The attributes for the <TR ...> ... </TR> element are the same as for the <TD ...> ... </TD> element, except for COLSPAN, NOWRAP, and ROWSPAN, which aren't allowed.

    Example

    See <TABLE ...> ... </TABLE> for an example.

    Word IA

    Click the Insert Table button, or choose Table > Insert Rows.

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    <TT> ... </TT>

    This tag mimics a typewriter or teletype machine's font. Displays fixed width (Courier) text in most browsers.

    Example

    The message I received just said<P>
    <TT>
    X marks the spot
    </TT>
    <P>but there was no X on the map.
    
    

    The lines above look like this in your web browser:

    The message I received just said

    X marks the spot

    but there was no X on the map.



    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and click the Fixed Width toolbar button, or press Ctrl+T, or choose Properties > Character > Fixed Width.

    Word IA

    Select text and choose Typewriter,TT from the Style drop-down list.

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    <U> ... </U>

    This tag pair displays underlined text between the tags. Use with caution because underlining is also used to identify hypertext links. (Don't confuse the reader by having a lot of non-hyperlink underlined text on your page.)

    Example

    Please <U>do not</U> try this at home.
    
    

    The line above looks like this in your web browser:

    Please do not try this at home.

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select text and click the Underline toolbar button, or press Ctrl+U.

    Word IA

    Select text and click the Underline button in the toolbar, or press Ctrl+U.

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    <UL> ... </UL>

    Defines an unordered (bulleted) list that usually appears with a bullet next to each list item. With each indent level, the bullets usually progress to different shapes, depending on the browser.

    Attributes

    COMPACT Displays the list in a more compact format.

    TYPE=type Defines the bullet type regardless of the indent level. Type can be disk, circle, or square. Netscape Navigator only.

    Example

    <H4>A Nested Unnumbered To Do List</H4>
    <UL>
    <LI>Clean fish tank
    <LI>Buy groceries
    <LI>Sleep
    <UL>
    <LI>Sleep in the day
    <LI>Sleep a lot!
    <LI>Sleep at night
    </UL>
    <LI>Eat
    </UL>
    
    

    The tags and text above look like this in your web browser:

    A Nested Unnumbered To Do List

    Netscape Gold Editor

    Select the list and click the Bullet List button. Use the Increase Indent and Decrease Indent buttons to change the level of indentation.

    Word IA

    Select the list and click the Bulleted List button. Use the Increase Indent and Decrease Indent buttons to change the level of indentation.

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    <VAR> ... </VAR>

    Specifies the style used to display variables in equations. Text is shown in italics in most web browsers.

    Example

    Did you know that <VAR>e</VAR>=<VAR>mc</VAR><SUP>2</SUP> means that energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared?

    That line above ends up looking like this in your web browser:

    Did you know that e=mc2 means that energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared?


    Word IA

    Select text and choose Variable,VAR from the Style drop-down list.

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    <WBR>

    This tag allows a word to break at the tag position. You can use this tag within a <NOBR> section to tell the browser where it can break a word if it needs to.

    Example

    <NOBR>This stuff shouldn't break, but if you have to break, <WBR>break now, OK?</NOBR>
    
    

    Top


    This is the first edition of this document, last updated 5/5/96.

    Other electronic HTML References worth taking a look at:


    Top

    font-style

    Values

    italic | oblique | normal

    :hover and :focus. Take, for example:

    A:hover {font-size: 200%;}

    In theory, a user agent would have to double the size of anchor text as the pointer hovers over it, which could well cause major redisplay issues. An author could cause similar problems by declaring that TEXTAREA elements should change their size when they are in focus. User agents are not required to reflow the document based on styles assigned to these pseudo-elements, althoughtext is less than its font-size, the inline boxfor that element is smaller. This will change the placement of thetext itself, since the top of its inline box must be aligned with thetop of the line box for its line. Thus we get the result shown inFigure 8-55.

    Figure 8-55

    Figure 8-55. The effects of a very small inline box

    On the other hand, we could set the "tall" text to have aline-height which is actually bigger than itsfont-size. For example: